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What are the different types of chemical bonds?

What are the properties of each bond?


There are four main types of chemical bonds:

1) Ionic bonds: two charged particles- ions- bind to each other due to the attractive forces between positive and negative charges. This is generally a fairly strong bond that allows for the formation of lattices (like a checkerboard), but substances with these bonds are soluable in water. (Ex.: NaCl)

2) Covalent bonds: two (non-metal) atoms share electrons. This sharing is not equal, so one part of the resulting molecule will be relatively negative and another part with be relatively positive. (Ex: H2O)

3) Hydrogen bond: in molecules in which hydrogen is covalently bonded to oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine, there is an unequal sharing of electrons within the molecule which makes the hydrogen partially positive and the oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine partially negative. As a result the partial positive of the hydrogen is attracted to the partial negative of the other atom (similarly to ionic bonding), and a (weak) bond is formed between neighboring molecules. (Ex. H2O)

4) Metallic bonds: when grouped together metal atoms are able to lose an electron. When each atom does this, this results in a sea of freely flowing electrons and a collection of metal + ions. Because positive and negative charges attract, the metal ions are drawn to the sea of electrons. As a result of this type of bond, two key properties for metals are that they are malleble and conduct electrons (Ex. Fe)