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How does binding (chem and physio) work?

Explain binding and how it works. What factors affect binding? 


The four types of chemical bonding is the result of electrostatic attraction between positive and negative charges, or the result of the sharing of electrons. In ionic bonds, positive and negative ions are attracted to one another to form networks of positive and negative charge. In hydrogen bonds, the partial negative charge in one part of a molecule (oxygen, nitrogen, of fluorine) is attracted to the partial positive charge on a hydrogen, and allows the formation of a weak bond. In metalic bonds, positive metal ions are drawn into a shared pool of electrons. Last, covalent bonds result from the direct sharing of valence electrons; since the most stable arrangement is to stick together and share electrons rather than let one atom have all electrons and the other be a charged particle, the covalent bond is quite strong in most cases.

The type of bond that is employed between two particular atoms/molecules depends on their relative electronegativities, meaning their affinity for electrons. If one atom has much higher electron affinity, the bond will be ionic, but if they are similar, bonding will be covalent. Metalic bonds will occur between metal atoms of the same or mixed types of metal. Finally, hydrogen bonding only occurs as the result of partial charges in OH, NH, or FH covalent bonds.

(Not sure what else you might be asking for with "physio".)

Hope this helps!